The Majapahit Era Calendar System, Influenced by Indian Culture
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The Majapahit Era Calendar System, Influenced by Indian Culture

Apply Saka Calendar

MAJAPAHIT is the largest monarchy kingdom that ever ruled in the archipelago. The kingdom with Hindu-Buddhist pattern, made almost all aspects of people’s lives influenced by Indian culture through the process of assimilation and acculturation. Including the calendar system at that time which applied the Saka calendar as it applies in India.

In its historical records, the Majapahit kingdom used the Saka or Saliwahana calendar. It is evident from the year numbers on a number of inscriptions and kakawin which record and describe important events at that time. Like the birth date of the Majapahit kingdom on the day of Raden Wijaya’s coronation as king. Namely the 15th of the month of Kartika (Kartikamasa) in 1215 Saka or November 10, 1293 AD.

“The calendar at that time used the Saka calendar. As in the inscription and kakawin. And the Saka calendar was indeed adopted from the Indian calendar,” said the Head of the Collection Unit at the Majapahit Information Center (PIM) at the East Java Cultural Preservation Center (BPK) Region XI Tommy Raditya D.

The existence of a calendar and calendar system at that time showed technological progress for the Wilwatikta civilization. Especially in astronomy and mathematics. Some sources even mention that the development of civilization at that time was in line with the influence of Indian culture which had been going on since prehistoric times. This was reinforced by the emergence of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms in the 4th to 15th centuries AD. Where at that time the civilization of the archipelago had not been influenced by European culture.

“The Saka calendar is one of the elements of Indian culture that entered Indonesia (the Archipelago). Apart from religion, government systems, social systems, and so on,” explained the alumnus of the Faculty of Humanities UNAIR.

In general, the Saka calendar uses the phases of the moon and sun or lunisolar or solar lunar as the main reference for determining the change of months to years. There are 12 months in one Saka year. Namely, Srawanamasa, Bhadrawadamasa, Asujimasa, Kartikamasa, Margasramasa, Posyamas, Maghamasa, Phalgunamasa, Centramasa, Wesakhamasa, Jyesthamasa, and Asadhamasa.

There are a number of differences between the Saka calendar and the Christian calendar which is currently commonly used. AD year refers to the solar cycle or the movement of the earth around the sun (earth’s revolution). The calculation starts from the birth of Jesus Christ or Prophet Isa AS. “By adopting (the Saka calendar), Majapahit adjusted and continued with the same system in India,” said Tommy.

Source : Java Post